Colourful new rainbow lighting has been installed along the path in Greyfriars Green, lighting up the walk between Coventry railway station and Bull Yard.
The light columns use red, green, blue and white LEDs, which offers approximately 52 million lighting combinations to choose from, and there are already plans in place to use the lighting to mark special occasions, such as Remembrance Sunday and St George’s Day.
Other lighting work in the city centre has included the new illuminated water feature in Bull Yard, as well as some new lighting columns. Lights on trees have also been installed in Hertford Street and the Whittle Arch in Millennium Place is now also lit at night.
Councillor Jim O’Boyle, Cabinet Member for Jobs and Regeneration, said: “It’s fantastic to be able to see the lights switched on. It makes such a difference and the pathway between the city centre and the railway station looks much more impressive and inviting – a true warm welcome into the city!”
“We’ve also just finished work in Bull Yard, with new lighting, seating, a new water feature and the play area, which opened this week. It’s great to be able to see that all our hard work is starting to really make a difference in creating spaces that work for local people, businesses and visitors alike.”
Councillor Patricia Hetherton, Cabinet Member for City Services, said: “The lighting just looks lovely. Greyfriars Green is such a beautiful spot in the day, and the lighting really showcases how beautiful it can be at night too. The path is the main connection from the station to the city centre and the lighting makes it even more impressive!”
As the Christmas holiday period comes to an end, we publish Brian Stote’s third and final Christmas feature. This one looks at the history of some of the Christmas traditions across the world.
The ancient Christmas began on December 6th with the Feast of St Nicholas who was the Bishop of Lycia in Asia Minor. He was known for saving three virgins from a fate worse than death by throwing three bags of gold through their window. In the light of this, he is the patron saint of prostitutes, though also of sailors, pawnbrokers and children. In this last capacity he became particularly associated with Christmas.
One tradition, from Oxfordshire, was that a single girl should bake a loaf on December 24th to discover the identity of her future husband. She had to fast throughout the day, name the loaf a ‘dumb-cake’ and prick it with her initials before leaving it by the hearth and going to bed. At the stroke of midnight, the future groom’s double would enter the room and mark his initials next to hers and leave. For this to happen, she had to leave the front door ajar. If she neglected to do this, she would remain a spinster for life.
On the same day, you needed to light the yule candle as a protection against fire, lightning strikes and electric storms throughout the year. You had to ensure that it remained lit throughout the night, for if it went out it was a very ill omen.
One Christmas Eve custom which began centuries ago was the ringing of church bells and in Dewsbury, Yorkshire, the Devil’s Knell still begins with a tolling bell at 11pm which continues until it has sounded once for every year since Christ was born and celebrates the Devil’s departure from the world in general and Dewsbury in particular.
January 5th was a pagan festival (which we still recognise) known as Wassail, when youths roamed around the fields beating drums and clashing metal to frighten off evil spirits. This was the fore-runner to carols. A wassail cup was then drunk which consisted of warm brown ale, wine, spices and roasted apples.
This part of the year gradually became a Christian festival and it became a tradition to decorate your house with greenery, particularly evergreens such as ivy, holly, bay, mistletoe and yew. These were originally believed to be protection against fire, lightning and the evil eye but happened to be the plants which gave winter colour when all others had gone into hibernation.
The yule log had to be big enough to burn slowly over the whole celebratory season and in France, if the heart of the log remained unburnt it was believed that a piece of it incorporated into a new plough would quicken the soil and ensure a good harvest. In Provence, into the 19th century, the strongest members of the family carried the yule log around the supper table three times before it was laid on the hearth and the eldest in the room poured a libation over it. This was to ask the old gods for help in the new year. The early church took over some of these traditions, with reservations, and decided that ash wood should be used because the Infant Jesus was warmed by a fire made with the wood by the shepherds.
It was customary to bank up the log with ashes at night and then fan it back into flames for the next day. In the Deep South of America, slaves were given a rest from labour while the log kept burning so it was often damped down to extend their holiday.
Boxing Day is so named because the alms boxes in churches were opened on that day to distribute the contents to the poor. This was known as ‘the dole of the Christmas box, the word ‘dole’ still being used for money received whilst out of work and ‘a Christmas Box’ being a gift – usually of money – to those who have served us well throughout the year.
The Christmas tradition in England gradually developed until it was stopped in its tracks by the Puritan dictats during the Civil War. In June 1647, a Parliamentary ordinance abolished the feasts of Christmas, Easter and Whitsun, and substituted as a regular holiday for students, servants and apprentices, the second Tuesday of every month. During the Christmas of 1647 a number of ministers were taken into custody by the authorities for attempting to preach on Christmas Day, and one of them subsequently published his intended sermon under the title ‘The Stillborn Nativity’. Despite this government pressure, however, Christmas festivities remained popular, and successive regimes throughout the 1650s felt obliged to reiterate their objection to any observance of the feast.
Christmas was to be marked by fasting rather than feasting and although the law was repealed at the restoration in 1660, many of the old customs had been lost.
In the post-parliamentary era, which lasted more than 160 years, some of the old traditions resurfaced, though in far fewer numbers and, although Christmas Day became rather more the focal day of celebration, the seasonal festivities were much less extensive and enthusiastic. The old Twelfth Night custom of the King and Queen being established did, however, return to popularity during the 18th century and the 1820’s saw the beginnings of a revival. With the dawning of the Victorian era it received a hefty boost and began to develop into what we would generally recognise as the Christmas of today.
House decoration in Victorian times, in the wealthier homes, was quite lavish. Garlands of ivy were wreathed around bannisters, and of nuts over mantelpieces. Holly and yew boughs were placed where children couldn’t reach them as their berries were poisonous.
Our modern concept of Father Christmas derives from a poem, ‘A Visit from Saint Nicolas’ written in 1822 by an American, Clement Clark Moore.
“…. A miniature sleigh and eight tiny reindeer, with a little old driver, so lively and quick,
I knew in a moment it must be Saint Nick…”
And it continues –
“Down the chimney St Nicolas came with a bound.
He was dressed all in fur from his head to his foot.
And his clothes were all tarnished with ashes and soot;
A bundle of toys he had flung on his back,
And he looked like a pedlar just opening his pack.
His eyes how they twinkled! His dimples how merry!
His cheeks were like roses, his nose like a cherry;
His droll little mouth was drawn up like a bow,
And the beard on his chin was as white as the snow.
He was chubby and plump – a right jolly old elf –
And I laughed when I saw him, in spite of myself.”
The pagan yule log was only perpetuated in Victorian times on greetings cards or in the form of bisque models as cake decorations. The cylindrical shape was easy to convert into containers for gift boxes which were made from papier mache and decorated with moss, flowers or crossed ribbons. The chocolate roll was made in imitation of the yule log and it was sprinkled with icing and dusted with sugar to simulate snow.
In the Victorian era, parlour games at family gatherings became popular such as Charades, Ha Ho Hee, Blind Man’s Bluff, Hunt the Slipper, Twenty Questions, Dumb Crambo, Reverend Crawley’s Game and Snapdragon.
Most of the very earliest Christmas carols were originally written in Latin as canticles and were difficult for lay people to sing with enthusiasm because they were not understood.
St. Francis of Assisi, in 1223, changed this when he started his Nativity Plays in Italy. The people in the plays sang songs or ‘canticles’ that told the story during the plays. Sometimes, the choruses of these new carols were in Latin; but normally they were all in a language that the people watching the play could understand and join in! The new carols spread to France, Spain, Germany and other European countries.
The earliest carol, like this, was written in 1410. Sadly, only a very small fragment of it still exists. The carol was about Mary and Jesus meeting different people in Bethlehem. Most Carols from this time and the Elizabethan period are untrue stories, very loosely based on the Christmas story, about the holy family and were seen as entertaining rather than religious songs. They were usually sung in homes rather than in churches. Travelling singers or Minstrels started singing these carols and the words were changed for the local people wherever they were travelling. One carol that changed like this is ‘I Saw Three Ships’.
Christmas carols remained mainly unsung until Victorian times, when two men called William Sandys and Davis Gilbert collected lots of old Christmas music from villages in England Before carol singing in public became popular, there were sometimes official carol singers called ‘Waits’. These were bands of people led by important local leaders (such as council leaders) who had the only power in the towns and villages to take money from the public (if others did this, they were sometimes charged as beggars!). They were called ‘Waits’ because they only sang on Christmas Eve. This was sometimes known as ‘watchnight’ or ‘waitnight’ because the shepherds were watching their sheep when the angels appeared to them.
Many of our traditional carols were written in the Victorian era, though some, such as the ‘Coventry Carol’ (Lullay, Lulla), were survivors from much earlier, as were ‘The Holly and the Ivy’, which could be 1000 years old and of pagan origin, ‘O Come O Come Emmanuel’ (12th Century) but with music by John Mason Neale 1851, ‘God Rest You Merry Gentlemen’ – words from 15th century and ‘The First Nowell’ – 16th century – both first published in 1833 by Sandys.
The Friends of London Road Cemetery have recently published their latest newsletter and a very interesting read it is. The following update is taken from that newsletter with the kind permission of Ian Woolley the Chairman and author.
Restoration Work Continues.
The restoration work within the Cemetery continues with the main contractors Midland Conservation Limited (MCL) having to contend with some very heavy rain fall at times in the last couple of months leading to concerns over the state of the roadways with excess mud being left behind. This was quickly acted on by the contractors by bringing in a sweeper unit which is taken around the site at the end of each day’s work.
The Paxton Memorial has been treated to a steam clean from top to toe, with pointing work being carried out and a few minor repairs in the process. All of the steps that surround the base of the Memorial were removed and new brick foundations installed. When removing the steps the contractors discovered three time capsules in glass bottles, the first from 1847 when it was installed. The second from 1925 when repair work had taken place, this gave the most information telling us that the work was done by Taylors an old Coventry stonemasons family. The third was from 1976 when some more restoration was needed. All three were returned into the stonework along with the names of the people from MCL who worked on this most recent restoration and a couple of FOLRC newsletters.
The Anglican Chapel has undergone a complete makeover with more work needed on the spire than first thought and complete new sections of stone being installed. All the windows have had a full restoration treatment with new leading and the stained glass items being sent off site, they are now back in place. At one point it was doubtful that the rose window was to be included. However on closer inspection it was found that there was hardly any glass left leaving the Chapel open the elements it was I’m pleased to say restored to its former glory.
Once all the work is finished this window should look stunning with the light streaming through and projecting it’s colourers on the newly pointed interior walls. New lighting and sound system have been added. The new “pods” that are being installed either side of the main door are also nearing completion. These will provide toilet and baby changing facilities and a small kitchen area.
This magnificent Celtic cross has now been reinstated and cleaned which has revealed the symbolism to much greater effect. The top section shows the resurrection, while on other parts are the words Alpha and Omega which are the first and last letters of the Greek alphabet. The meaning here being for the beginning, the continuation, and the end of all this. The grave is said to have toppled in the Hurricane of 1987 that weather man Micheal Fish famously said wouldn’t happen, so after 33 years it’s back in place.
As work nears completion in certain areas resurfacing some of the roadways has started with tarmac being put down leading from the grave of James Starley past George Singerand round under the large Copper Beach tree.
Carriage Way Entrance Tunnel
The entrance tunnel has now been opened up. Balustrades have been reinstated above, the flooring levels brought up to standard to meet up with the mortuary and electric cables being run for lighting etc.
The balustrades along the promenade have now been reinstated either side above the Entrance Tunnel and above the bier store. The design is similar to the originals.
The Bier store looking a lot smarter than in past years. Doors restored and stained. Also topped off with new balustrades. Unfortunately the balustrades around the Triumph Gloria Memorial have not been reinstated at this moment in time.
Hundreds of excited fans turned out on 15 December 1857 to hear Charles Dickens, master storyteller of the age, reading from his famous tale, A Christmas Carol, in Coventry.
The venue was the city’s imposing new Corn Exchange in Hertford Street, designed by James Murray and opened just a year earlier to stage concerts and lectures and public meetings of all kinds, as well as the weekly corn market.
The public reading was merely one element in Dickens’s extraordinarily prolific career as a writer; he was constantly on tour in Britain and America. But this reading was a little different.
He was in Coventry at the personal request of his friend Joseph Paxton, designer of the Crystal Palace and Liberal MP for Coventry until his death in 1865. And the reading had a charitable purpose – to support the new Coventry Institute, a particular interest of Paxton’s.
The Institute, founded two years earlier to encourage literary and scientific pursuits amongst the working classes, was an amalgamation of Coventry’s Mechanics Institution and the Religious and Useful Knowledge Society, and was in desperate need of funds. In the event, the reading raised the respectable sum of £50 for its coffers.
Dickens was back in Coventry almost exactly a year later, when on 4 December 1858 he was the guest of honour at a dinner held at the Castle Hotel, Broadgate, to thank him for his fund-raising efforts.
During the evening he was presented with a gold repeater watch made by the leading firm of Rotherham & Sons which bore the inscription ‘Presented to Charles Dickens by his friends at Coventry as a grateful acknowledgement of his kindness to them, and of his eminent services in the interests of humanity.’
Dickens clearly treasured the watch. He kept it as a much-valued possession all his life and on his death bequeathed it to his biographer John Forster.
But he was somewhat less fulsome in his praise of Coventry’s watch-making industry, witnessed during a tour of Rotherham’s Spon Street factory.
While full of admiration for the skills on display, he found the Coventry trade’s way of doing things too conservative, contrasting it unfavourably with practices in its fastest-growing foreign competitor, Switzerland.
Writing in Household Words, the weekly journal he edited throughout the 1850s, Dickens argued that one reason for the cheapness of Swiss watches was that women worked in the trade. In Coventry, he added, ‘the employers desire it, the women desire it, but the men will not allow it.’
A sour note to end with, perhaps, but did the writer have cause to thank Coventry for something else?
Dickens once told a friend that he set a scene in The Old Curiosity Shop, where Little Nell takes shelter in the darkness of an ancient gateway, on a place he’d seen while passing through Coventry in a stage coach.
His description, complete with an empty statue niche over the central archway, perfectly fits Whitefriars Gatehouse on Much Park Street, in coaching times the main entrance to the city from London.
A number of CovSoc Committee members contributed to this article but our thanks to historian Peter Walters for bringing it all together.
In 1843, one Sir Henry Cole, a civil servant and later the founder of the Victoria and Albert Museum, was late delivering his ‘duty letters’ and asked a friend, Sir John Calcott Horsley R.A. to design a special card that he could send instead. This portrayed a family group drinking wine, pictures showing acts of charity, framed by a rustic bower, and bearing the message “A Merry Christmas and a Happy New Year to You”. Sir Henry Cole also devised the perforated stamp and the concept of the postcard.
In 1846 a thousand of these were produced at a cost of 1/- each and the Christmas card became an established means of giving Christmas greetings. In 1848, one Mr Dobson produced a card depicting ‘The Spirit of Christmas’ and sold thousands and in the same year W M Egley created an etching which had holly, mistletoe, cherubs and a Harlequin and Columbine from pantomime. The advent of the penny post in 1840 had changed the onus of payment from the recipient to the sender, so it became a pleasure to receive a letter rather than an unwelcome missive for which poorer people needed to pay.
Mass production was well under way by the 1860’s and cards were sold in sheets of 12, to be cut apart much like postage stamps and the size of visiting cards. Companies offering to deliver circulars at rates as low as a farthing forced the Post Office, in 1870, to create a halfpenny post and this served to increase the popularity of sending Christmas cards.
In 1880, Raphael and Tuck began to produce a wide range of cards in different shapes, some of which were ‘pop-ups’ through clever folding and some bejewelled, embossed and ever more elaborate. In the heyday of Victorian cards, there were over 200,000 different designs available by 1895. One company offered a prize of £10,000 for the best design and commissioned drawings by well-known artists. Tennyson was offered £1000 to write a short verse and Christina Rossetti and George Eliot derived income from the practice during their careers.
The Christmas tree began to make its appearance in the 1820’s but its real boost in popularity came after an article in the Illustrated London News in 1848 showed a drawing of the royal family celebrating around a decorated Christmas tree, a tradition brought from Prince Albert’s childhood in Germany, Soon this became the fashion in almost every home where they were decorated with candles, sweets, fruit and small gifts. These gifts gradually enlarged and found their way to the foot of the tree as they were too big to be borne by the branches. Christmas trees were actually popular in America before they became so in Britain, possibly because the troops of George III fighting against Washington’s men set them up or, more likely, there were many immigrant German families who took the tradition with them.
In 1840, British confectioner, Tom Smith, saw bonbons (sugared almonds wrapped in twists of paper) on a trip to Paris and began to make and sell them in Britain. Sales were reasonable but not spectacular, and he struggled for several years to find an idea to popularise them.
In 1846 he made a coloured paper wrapper filled with sweets which could be pulled apart from both ends with the sweets spilling out. In the early 1850’s, since these ‘bonbons’ were generally given by young men to their sweethearts, he began inserting a motto or a short love poem which gradually led, by the 1930’s, to the cringe-worthy jokes which we have today.
In about 1860, sitting in front of an open fire, Tom heard the wood crackling and the concept of creating something which made a loud noise was born. He inserted two strips of overlapping paper impregnated with chemicals which created a bang when friction was applied and invented the cracker. His final move, to compete with imitators, was to add a small surprise gift. The traditional paper crown was added around 1900 and related back to the Twelfth Night king and queen of centuries earlier. Crackers were originally called ‘cosaques’ as they were reminiscent of the Russian soldiers who raced around on horseback excitedly firing off their guns.
Special thanks to CovSoc member Brian Stote for another interesting Christmas article.